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Asthma and hay fever

Hay fever is the common name for allergic rhinitis. It is an allergic reaction to allergens, or triggers, breathed in through the nose – this causes an immune response in the lining of the nose where the nasal passages become red, swollen and sensitive. Some people may experience hay fever at certain times of the year (e.g. spring or summer) or all year round.

Symptoms of hay fever

Common symptoms of hay fever

  • Itchy nose or eyes
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Blocked nose
  • Throat clearing or coughing to clear the throat
  • Snoring
  • Mouth breathing

Other symptoms

  • Disturbed sleep
  • Daytime tiredness
  • Poor concentration
  • Recurrent headaches
  • Frequent sore throats
  • Hoarse voice
  • Facial pain or pressure
  • Reduced sense of smell
  • Recurrent sinus infections in adults
  • Increased risk of ear infections in children

 You may only experience some of these symptoms, you do not need to have all symptoms to have hay fever.

How can hay fever impact your asthma?

Asthma affects 2.5 million Australians, and 80% of people with asthma also have hay fever.1 Asthma and hay fever both involve airway inflammation and sensitivity throughout the respiratory system – this means it is important to treat the nose as well as the lungs. 

Hay fever can make asthma worse and more difficult to control

The reason that the presence of hay fever can make asthma more difficult to control is not entirely clear but it has been suggested that breathing through your mouth when your nose is blocked can further aggravate your asthma by bypassing the nose’s filtering and humidifying function or that there is a reflex effect of nasal inflammation which triggers lower airway narrowing.

People with asthma who have hay fever experience:

  • More asthma flare-ups
  • More visits to their GP and asthma-related hospitalisations
  • More time off work or school
  • Higher annual medical costs 2,3,4

Research shows that treating hay fever can reduce asthma related emergency department visits and hospitalisations and may help to improve your asthma symptoms.

It is important to treat and manage both your asthma and hay fever well!

Treatment options for hay fever

Treatment of hay fever depends on the severity and frequency of your hay fever symptoms.

There are a range of different treatments available:

Corticosteroid nasal sprays

These nasal sprays are the most effective treatment for hay fever, they work to reduce the swelling in the lining of your nose (just like your preventer medications). They can reduce all symptoms of hay fever, particularly nasal congestion (blocked nose) but need to be taken regularly to work properly – they may take a few days to work.

Some corticosteroid nasal sprays are available over the counter at your pharmacy and others are available with a prescription. You should speak to your doctor or pharmacist about what nasal spray is best for you.

Tips for using nasal sprays

1. Shake the bottle before each use.

2. Blow nose before spraying if blocked by mucus.

3. Tilt head slightly forward and gently insert nozzle into nostril.

4. Aim the nozzle slightly away from the middle of the nose in line with the roof of the mouth.

5. Actuate the spray, but avoid sniffing hard during or after spraying.

Antihistamine tablets or spray

Antihistamines are the most common choice for people with mild or occasional hay fever, and help to relieve a runny nose, sneezing, and itching and eye symptoms. They are less effective in treating a blocked nose.

Antihistamines are available over the counter at your pharmacy. You should avoid the types of antihistamines that can make you drowsy.  Newer antihistamines known as non-sedating antihistamines are less likely to make you drowsy and are a common choice for people with milder or occasional symptoms of hay fever. 

Saline sprays/irrigation

Salt water (saline) solutions can be used to help clear nasal congestion, wash away dust and other irritants and soothe the lining of your nose. They should be used before other nasal sprays. 


Decongestant nasal sprays or tablets are used to unblock the nose. They should not be taken for more than a few days at a time. If you still continue to experience symptoms you should speak to your doctor.  

Tips for people with hay fever

If you have hay fever and asthma, treating your hay fever will help keep your asthma under control.

Manage your asthma and hay fever

  • know the symptoms of hay fever and asthma
  • have the right plan and medications in place to best handle your symptoms
  • Check you are using your asthma and hay fever medications correctly

Before starting hay fever treatment tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any other medical conditions, are pregnant, taking other medications, or experience nose bleeds

If you have hay fever and/or asthma you may be at risk of thunderstorm asthma. For more information about thunderstorm asthma click here.

Remember, if you cough, wheeze or sneeze, talk to your doctor or pharmacist to help manage your asthma and hay fever

For information and support about asthma call 1800 ASTHMA (1800 278 462)

Download asthma and hay fever resources

Asthma and hay fever infographic (PDF 3.4MB)

Asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) – An information sheet for Pharmacy (PDF 1.5MB)

Asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) – An information sheet for General Practice (PDF 1.4MB)

Protect yourself this hay fever season posters

References and further information

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Allergic rhinitis (‘hay fever’) in Australia. Cat. no. ACM 23. Canberra: AIHW; 2011. Available from: http://
  2. Bousquet, J., Gaugris, S., Kocevar, V. S., Zhang, Q., Yin, D. D., Polos, P. G. and Bjermer, L. (2005), Increased risk of asthma attacks and emergency visits among asthma patients with allergic rhinitis: a subgroup analysis of the improving asthma control trial. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 35: 723–727.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02251.x.


  3. Pawankar R, Bunnag C, Chen Y, et al. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma update (ARIA 2008)–western and Asian-Pacific perspective. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2009; 27: 237-243. Available from:
  4. Price D, Zhang Q, Kocevar VS, et al. Effect of a concomitant diagnosis of allergic rhinitis on asthma-related health care use by adults. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005; 35: 282-7. Available from:


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